The newer, growing part of a tree. It carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Generally not considered the premium sections of a board by either woodworkers or carpenters.
A stationary power tool used primarily for edge treatments of straight or curved pieces. It may also be used for decorative profiles for molding, for making joints, and for making grooves or flutes. Because of the difficulty in adequately guarding the exposed cutters, many woodworkers consider a shaper to be a relatively dangerous machine. Most commonly used shapers have single spindles.
A natural product which can be used as a sealer or finishing product, depending on the percentage (cut) of shellac mixed with denatured alcohol. Shellac is usually not recommended as a top coat where it may be exposed to high moisture conditions.
a low spot, or small depression, towards the ends of a board caused by the power jointer or power planer. Often caused by the stock being inadequately supported, and the knives taking a deeper bite as gravity causes the leading end to drop.
Wood harvested from a tree that is, botanically, a gymnosperm. This roughly, but not exactly, corresponds to evergreen trees, those that do not drop their leaves seasonally. An example of a tree that is an gymnosperm but does drop its leaves in winter is the Baldcypress, Taxodium distichum. The term "softwood" does not indicate the hardness of the wood itself, as many hardwoods are softer than the harder softwoods.
a natural decaying effect, usually caused by a fungus, that puts dark/black lines in the wood. Some woodworkers use spalted wood for its decorative effect.
A thin piece of stock used to reinforce a joint. As an alternative to a tenon, a spline fits into a slot (as compared to a mortise). Often used to reinforce miter and other joints between decorative and generally non-structural wood parts.
hand-held knife or plane used to shape wood -- typically rounding the stock. Name derives from tools used to shape and shave wood for wagon spokes.
small pieces of wood or plastic used to separate individual planks when drying wood. Stickers elevate the planks and allow air to circulate around the entire board to aid drying
a scrap piece of stock with measurement marks on it.
The vertical portions of a face frame (see rail)
Basically, a circular saw mounted upside down under a table, where the work piece is passed through the cutting path against the rotation of the blade. The saw blade/motor assembly is capable of being tilted as necessary, usually up to about 45° from vertical, either toward the fence or away from it. Capacity of a table saw is determined by the diameter of the saw blade, with 10" or 12" being most common in the home shop.
The product of a cutting or routing operation where wood fibers are raised from the surface of the workpiece, lifting away from the milling iperation. Some woods are more susceptible to tearout than others, and some tearout can be reduced by changing the direction of cutting or routing, or by changing to a sharper or more appropriate blade or bit.
A type of joint where a tenon is milled along the edge of one board and designed to fit into a slot that is milled along the edge of an adjacent board. Often boards will be milled with a tongue along one edge, and the groove along the other. One application of this type of joint is in flooring.
a board with a curve or warp, along the grain, that turns in opposite directions.
Any of several types of finish coats applied to wood to protect or enhance its appearance, made from natural oils with resin, such as tung oil, or from synthetics, such as polyurethane. One major drawback to the use of varnish is its relatively slow drying time.